The Shem Ha-Mephorash
שם המפרש
The Extended Name (of 72)


Exodus 14:19 And the angel of God, which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them:
Exodus 14:20 And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel; and it was a cloud and darkness [to them], but it gave light by night [to these]: so that the one came not near the other all the night.
Exodus 14:21 And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the LORD caused the sea to go [back] by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry [land], and the waters were divided.


Appendix

Theory

The 'Extended Name' (of God) is derived from the above three verses of Exodus. The method used to determine the 72 component names is by writing in Hebrew the 19th verse right to left, and then the 20th verse left to right underneath it, and then the 21st verse right to left underneath the 20th verse. This derives three rows of 72 Hebrew letters, and thus also 72 vertical columns of three Hebrew letters. It is these 72 columns that contain the 72 three-letter formulae that are the Shem Ha-Mephorash - the 'Extended Name'.

There is a very informative web-page concerning this subject located at...

http://www.hermeticgoldendawn.org/leitch-shemhamephoresh.html

...and I recommend that you firstly read that page before continuing beyond this point.

The 'Extended Name' (or 'Divided Name') is fabled to be an 'extension' of that most venerated Name, the Tetragrammaton - YHVH. Below you will find the Extended Name in tabulated form with associations derived according to a system outlined in The Key of Solomon the King.

Quote...

"The Schema is one, its columns are two, its power is three, its form is four, its reflection giveth eight, which multiplied by three giveth unto thee the twenty-four Thrones of Wisdom.

Upon each Throne reposeth a Crown with three Rays, each Ray beareth a Name, each Name is an Absolute Idea. There are Seventy-two Names upon the Twenty-four Crowns of the Schema.

Thou shalt write these Names upon Thirty-six Talismans, two upon each Talisman, one on each side.

Thou shalt divide these Talismans into four series of nine each, according to the number of the Letters of the Schema.

Upon the first Series thou shalt engrave the Letter Yod, symbolized by the Flowering Rod of Aaron.

Upon the second the Letter Hé, symbolized by the Cup of Joseph.

Upon the third the Letter Vau, symbolized by the Sword of David my father.

And upon the fourth the Hé final, symbolized by the Shekel of Gold.

These thirty-six Talismans will be a Book which will contain all the Secrets of Nature. And by their diverse combinations thou shalt make the Genii and Angels speak."

[From: AN ANCIENT FRAGMENT OF THE KEY OF SOLOMON, translated from the Hebrew by Eliphaz Lévi; and given in his 'Philosophie Occulte,' Serie II., Page 136.]

The 72 three-letter names listed in the table (below) are meant to be grouped in 36 pairs consisting of one 'active' and one 'passive' name. This method of grouping produces the "four series of nine each" mentioned in the quote from Solomon (above).

Sagittarius Leo Aries

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

K

L

H

H

M

Y

H

L

A

H

K

A

L

M

O

S

Y

V

L

A

Q

R

B

Z

H

A

L

Z

H

K

L

H

L

Y

L

H

Y

V

M

Y

H

L

O

V

D

Y

Th

A

H

Sh

M

T

Y

V

Pisces Scorpio Cancer

36

35

34

33

32

31

30

29

28

27

26

25

24

23

22

21

20

19

M

K

L

Y

V

L

A

R

Sh

Y

H

N

Ch

M

Y

N

P

L

N

V

H

Ch

Sh

K

V

Y

A

R

A

Th

H

L

Y

L

H

V

D

Q

Ch

V

R

B

M

Y

H

Th

A

H

V

H

Y

K

L

V

Gemini Aquarius Libra

54

53

52

51

50

49

48

47

46

45

44

43

42

41

40

39

38

37

N

N

O

H

D

V

M

O

O

S

Y

V

M

H

Y

R

Ch

A

Y

N

M

Ch

N

H

Y

Sh

R

A

L

V

Y

H

Y

H

O

N

Th

A

M

Sh

Y

V

H

L

Y

L

H

L

K

H

Z

O

M

Y

Virgo Taurus Capricorn

72

71

70

69

68

67

66

65

64

63

62

61

60

59

58

57

56

55

M

H

Y

R

Ch

A

M

D

M

O

Y

V

M

H

Y

N

P

M

V

Y

B

A

B

Y

N

M

Ch

N

H

M

Tz

R

Y

M

V

B

M

Y

M

H

V

O

Q

B

Y

V

H

B

R

Ch

L

M

Y

H

Y (Yod)
-fire-
H (Ha)
-water-
V (Vav)
-air-
H (Ha)
-earth-

Note: The above zodiacal correspondences significantly differ to the well known Order of the Golden Dawn allocations. The GD begin their sequence of names with the sign of Leo and progress from there around the natural order of the zodiac. The result of their methodology is that each row of names begins with a cherubic sign (i.e. Leo, Scorpio, Aquarius, and Taurus) corresponding to the Y-H-V-H elemental attributions of Fire, Water, Air, and Earth. This sequence is quite logical except that we end up with each row of names containing a triple combination of one Fire sign, one Water sign, one Air sign, and/or one Earth sign which seems to conflict with the Y-H-V-H elemental row assignments. The method used in the table above allocates all the Fire signs to the Yod (Y) row, all the Water signs to the Ha (H) row, etc, corresponding to the four elements ascribed to Y-H-V-H (as indicated in the table above). Ultimately, it must be left to your own personal judgement as to which system of zodiacal allocations you wish to use.

It is a mystery how this special Name is meant to be 'pronounced', but there are clues provided for us in the Zohar...

"AND THE PILLAR OF THE CLOUD REMOVED FROM BEFORE THEM AND STOOD BEHIND THEM. What was this pillar of cloud? Rabbi Jose said that it was the cloud that was always seen with the Shekinah, the cloud into which Moses entered (Ex. XXIV, 18). R. Abba said that it was that which supports the Zaddik, coming from the side of Grace (Hesed), wherefore it went by day, while there was another cloud which went by night and was called 'pillar of fire'. R. Simeon said that the pillar of cloud by day represented Abraham (Mercy), and the pillar of fire by night, Isaac (Severity), both attributes being united in the Shekinah, through the agency of the grade mentioned by R. Abba. 'The word "removed" (YLK, 'yaw-lak') in this sentence', he said, 'implies that there was a movement from Grace to Severity, for the time had arrived for the Holy One to clothe Himself with Judgement.' R. Simeon further said that the "Moon" - the Shekinah - was then in Her fulness and perfection, manifesting both attributes and representing in Herself seventy-two holy Names according to the threefold order (My Note: i.e. as described by me above). In virtue of the first order of letters, she clothed Herself with the garment of Grace, shining with the resplendence of the light which the Supernal Father caused to shine for Her; in virtue of the second She adorned Herself with the implements of war, expressing Severity, and sixty "whips" of fire, emanating from the Supernal Mother. The third order of the letters represents Her in garments of purple, the adornment of the Holy Supernal Father, designated "Beauty" (Tiphereth), which is communicated to the Holy Son (i.e. the letter Vav in the Tetragrammaton) in seventy crowns from the side of the Father (Yod) and of the Mother (Ha). We have been taught that from the side of Grace there are seventy-two witnesses; from the side of Severity, seventy-two scribes; from the side of Beauty, seventy-two colours of glory. In the transcendent sphere they are all linked one to the other, forming the Holy Name, the mystery of the Divine Chariot. Here (in the three verses, Ex XIV, 19-21) are inscribed the patriarchs in unison, forming the Holy Name of seventy-two letters of the three verses. And this is the order of their combination: the first verse (19) is to be written straight, for all its initial letters are found in Hesed; the second verse (20) is to be written backward, for all its second letters are found in Geburah; in this way Judgement may be roused, with all those powers that emanate from the left side. The letters of the third verse when written out show forth the colours which crown the Holy King; and all these letters are united in Him, and He is crowned with His diadems in the proper manner, like a king fully crowned. Here is the Holy Name engraved in seventy-two letters, which are crowned with the Fathers who are the supernal Holy Chariot. Should the question arise, why the third group is not to be written partly straight-forward and partly backwards, so as to be in touch with both sides (as Tifereth is in touch with both Hesed and Geburah), we must picture a king who combines in himself the balance and harmony of all attributes, and therefore his countenance always shines like the sun, and he is serene because of his wholeness and perfection; but when he judges, he can condemn as well as acquit. A fool, seeing that the king's countenance is bright, thinks that there is nothing to be afraid of; but a wise man says to himself, "although the king's countenance shines, it is because he is perfect and combines benevolence with justice, and in that brightness judgement [52a] is hidden, and therefore I must be careful". The Holy One is such a king. R. Judah found this idea expressed in the words: "I, the Lord, have not changed" (Mal. III, 6), meaning, "in Me all the attributes are harmoniously combined, the two aspects of mercy and severity are one in Me."

[From: The Zohar, Vol III, pp 158-159. Soncino Press, 1984.]

The above appears to describe a system where the three letters of each of the 72 portions of the Divided Name are associated with the three sefiroth - Hesed, Geburah, and Tifareth. The first letter is associated with Hesed, the second with Geburah, while the third belongs to Tifareth. This is an important concept and seems to be the basis for the methodology used in describing the various functions of each of the 72 angels (of the Name).

The name of each of the 72 angels (of the Shem Ha-Mephorash) is composed of the three letters in one of the columns in the table above - with the addition of either yod-ha (YH), or aleph-lamed (AL) as a suffix. But we are more concerned here with the three original letters of each angelic name.

The traditional descriptions of the angels are all formatted in the following way...

  1. Helps, serves, or protects
  2. Dominates
  3. Influences

And these three descriptors correspond to...

  1. Hesed (and 'Mercy')
  2. Geburah (and 'Severity')
  3. Tifareth (and 'Mildness')

So for instance, the angel numbered 18 is Kaliel (KLY, kaph-lamed-yod - see table above) and its three functions are:

  1. Hesed: Serves to make known the truth, aids the triumph of innocents
  2. Geburah: Dominates trials
  3. Tifareth: Influences witnesses

The reason that I chose to use this angel in my example is because you will notice that the spelling of its name is the same as that of the Hebrew word 'yawlak' (YLK, 'removed' - actually, 'to go; to walk') quoted in the Zohar passage above. The obvious difference is that the three letters of the angel Kaliel's name (KLY) are the reverse of YLK.

It is interesting that the speaker (i.e. Rabbi Simeon) specifically mentions this word 'YLK' in his discourse as being important. In this light, the biblical verse from Exodus could very well be read as follows...

Exodus 14:19 And the angel of God, which went before the camp of Israel, (named) YLK, went behind them; and the pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them:

This might be a reference to the 18th angel called KLY (Kaliel) one of whose functions is to "aid the triumph of innocents" - i.e. the Hebrews who were being pursued and harrassed by the Egyptians.

According to the theory that I am presenting here, the name of the angel Kaliel can thus be analysed as follows...

  1. Hesed: K (Kaph) Serves to make known the truth, aids the triumph of innocents
  2. Geburah: L (Lamed) Dominates trials
  3. Tifareth: Y (Yod) Influences witnesses

The entire list of angels (of the Shem Ha-Mephorash) and their functions can be found on the page cited above.

Practice

What does this passage from the Zohar tell us about how we can use the 72-fold Name in our qabalistic practices?

One possibility is that the Hebrew letters of the Name are meant to be 'pronounced' magically using the Tree of Life schema that has been built into the aura of the magician. If you are a practitioner of my own practical system of qabalah then the sphere of Hesed will be located a short distance away from the right-hand side of your head, while Geburah hovers level with your head on the left-hand side. The sphere of Tifareth is positioned near your mid-section (i.e. your solar-plexus area).

Pronouncing the Name then, would involve visualising and 'vibrating' the three Hebrew letters within their appropriate sefirothic spheres and projecting their triple force in the desired direction. The employment of the 'Sign of the Enterer' (i.e. Horus god-form) would be very useful as a method for projecting these energies. (See Crowley's Liber O, Section III.)

My suggestion is that you project each name from your aura in the form of an inverted triangle of light with the three Hebrew letters positioned at its vertices. It would then become a natural extension (or reflection) of the Hesed-Geburah-Tifareth triangle as you project it out into the Universe. (If you are evoking an angel then place the AL or YH suffix in the center of the imagined triangle.)

More Theory

Here's another related excerpt from the Zohar...

R. Abba further discoursed on the verse: For the Leader; of the sons of Korah, upon Alamoth. A song (Ps. XLVI, 1). 'This verse,' he said, 'if properly considered, will be found to contain a deep mystical allusion. And, indeed, all the songs and hymns sung by the sons of Korah were ancient songs and hymns sung anew; and all the songs and hymns sung by David and his associates contain deep allusions of wisdom. Now God has made the lower world after the pattern of the upper world, and all the arrangements laid down by David and Solomon and by all the true prophets were [159a] after the supernal pattern. Observe that in the same manner as there are watches of the night on earth, so are there in heaven relays of angels who sing praises to their Master and intone hymns continually; they all stand ranged in rows, facing each other, and producing one harmony of song and praise. Thus the companions have interpreted the phrase "upon Alamoth. A song". The term "Alamoth", according to them, has a meaning similar to its homonym in the verse: "There are threescore queens, and fourscore concubines and maidens (alamoth) without number" (S.S. VI, 8), whilst the phrase "without number" finds its echo in the passage: "Is there any number in his armies?" (Job, XXV, 3). Hence "maidens without number" all standing in rows upon rows, facing each other, to sing hymns and praises to their Master. These are called "the maidens of song" because there are other maidens who do not chant hymns like these. There are three orders (of singers) arrayed on each one of the four sides of the world, and each order again is subdivided into three sub-orders. The first order on the East contains thus three orders each with three sub-orders, amounting altogether to nine, each of which comprises thousands and tens of thousands of angels. All these nine orders are guided by a signal of engraved letters to which they constantly look up. The same procedure is followed by the rest of the orders, all of whom are similarly guided by engraved letters. Furthermore, they are arrayed in a series of ranks one above the other, all of them chanting praises in unison; and when those letters soar high in the air the chief of them gives the command and a melodious chanting is raised. Then one letter flies up from the lower world, rising and descending, until two letters fly down to meet it; they then join together into a group of three, corresponding to the letters YHV, which are the three letters within the "illuminating mirror". The two supernal letters which rise aloft are intertwined the one within the other, expressing the union of mercy and severity. Hence they are two, and are of the upper world, symbolising the male principle. On the other hand, the one that ascended from below and joined them symbolises the female principle, and thus is embraced by the two, in the same way as the female is embraced by two arms, the right and the left, so that a unity is formed which is both male and female. For when the world was created it was the supernal letters that brought into being all the works of the lower world, literally after their own pattern. Hence, whoever has a knowledge of them and is observant of them is beloved both on high and below.' R. Simeon said: 'All these letters consist of male and female merging together into one union, symbolical of the upper waters and the lower waters, which also form one union. This is the type of perfect unity. Hence, whoever has a knowledge of them and is observant of them, happy is his portion in this world and in the world to come; as therein is contained the root principle of true and perfect unity. Now, the three orders on each side act in perfect unison, being truly symbolical of the supernal order. The second order on the South consists also of three orders each with three sub-orders, forming a total of nine, as said above. As for the letters, they are distributed on all the sides, so as to become united later, inasmuch as there are letters of the female principle and letters of the male principle, the two classes of which come together to form a unity symbolical of the mystery of the complete divine Name. The third order on the North also comprises three orders each with three sub-orders, amounting to nine. The total number of orders on all three sides thus amounts to twenty-seven, [159b] corresponding to the twenty-seven letters, inclusive of the five final letters. These twenty-seven letters distributed over the three sides consist of nine letters of the female principle which join and become united with the other eighteen letters, as has been explained, all being carried out in proper order. Observe that after the pattern of the supernal letters there are other letters here below, the upper letters being large ones and the lower letters small ones, but both of the same pattern. And they both contain the mystery of the male principle and the female principle, which together form a perfect unity.'

[From: The Zohar, Vol II, pp 109-111. Soncino Press, 1984.]

The 'East', the 'South', and the 'North' refer to certain sefiroth of the Tree of Life as follows...

These correspondences coincide with certain of my findings concerning the Sefer Yetzirah. (See my article: The Seven Seals of YHV.)

Besides somewhat echoing the information contained in the first Zohar passage (i.e. quoted near the top of this page) the above excerpt appears to be referring to the SY and the relationship between Mem, Shin, and Aleph, and their reflections in the 'lower world' as Yod, Ha, and Vav (as well as their esoteric connections with all the 27 Hebrew letters).

"There are three orders (of singers) arrayed on each one of the four sides of the world, and each order again is subdivided into three sub-orders."
This statement refers possibly to the 36 (i.e. 4x9) pairs of names that compose the Shem Ha-Mephorash, but it only goes on to describe the "the maidens of song" who seem to be associated with the South, North, and East (i.e. Hesed, Geburah, and Tifareth). It does not go into detail about the "other maidens who do not chant hymns" and who are presumably identified with the West (and with the sefirah Yesod).

Also in the Zohar we read...

R. Hizkiah discoursed on the text: Who commandeth the sun, and it riseth not; and sealeth up the stars (Job IX, 7). 'God', he said, 'has set seven stars in the firmament, and each firmament contains numerous angels appointed to minister to the Holy One, blessed be He, each angel having its own service to perform before his Master. All attend to the service to which they have been appointed and each one knows his task. Some of them serve as messengers, having charge in this world of the works of men; others are appointed to chant to Him songs and hymns. But although this is their own particular charge, there is no host in heaven or in the stars or in the constellations but chants praises to the Holy One, blessed be He; for as soon as night falls three hosts of angels range themselves in three quarters of the universe; and in each quarter there are myriads upon myriads, all of whom have for their task [189a] to chant praises to the Holy One. Over these three hosts there stands a sacred Hayah [i.e. a holy living creature, or cherub] as chieftain. The chanting continues until daybreak. As soon as day breaks all those on the side of the South as well as the shining stars break out into song and praise to the Holy One, as we read: "When the morning stars, and all the sons of God shouted for joy" (Job XXXVIII, 7), the morning stars being the stars of the South, the direction implied in the sentence: "And Abraham got up early in the morning" (Gen. XIX, 27), whilst the "sons of God" are those on the left side who merge themselves in the right. When daylight arrives Israel takes up the song and offer praises to the Holy One three times a day, corresponding to the three watches of the night. Thus through the angels and Israel together the glory of God is proclaimed day and night with six litanies. The sacred Hayah that is in charge of the chantings of the night on high similarly presides over the chantings of Israel here below; and all is performed in proper order. In regard to this one it is also written: "She riseth also while it is yet night and giveth food to her household, and a portion to her maidens" (Prov. XXXI, 15), where the "household" alludes to the heavenly hosts, whilst the word "maidens" signifies Israel here below. The Holy One is thus extolled both on high and here below.'

[From: The Zohar, Vol II, pp 219-220. Soncino Press, 1984.]

It appears that the three hosts of "angels of song" are associated with the three Hebrew letters Y-H-V of the Tetragrammaton (i.e. Y-H-V-H). These are referred to the first three rows of names in the Shem Ha-Mephorash table presented above - that is, the angels of the Fire, Water, and Air zodiacal signs. And over these three hosts of angels "there stands a sacred Hayah as chieftain" presumably referring to the Lion, Eagle, and Man cherubim who are associated with the Fire, Water and Air signs respectively. It may be then that the three Earth signs and (specifically) the host of angels who represent them are those who "serve as messengers, having charge in this world of the works of men" (as it is written in the passage above). These angels would then be associated with the West and with the sefirah Yesod as afore-mentioned.

Finally, it is important to realise that (judging from my preceeding analysis) this Zohar passage lends credence to the Shem Ha-Mephorash zodiacal attributions as they appear in the table above - which is different to the standard 'Golden Dawn' system of attributions (for example). For more information concerning this discrepancy please read the article previously cited.


Appendix

Patrick (Mallukh AHI) : 12 Feb 2002 (Updated: 1 Mar 2002)


Copyright © 2002. Patrick Mulcahy / AstroQab
All rights reserved.